Are You Ready for the New Academic Year?

Toolbox

The new academic year is here and it is time to organize ourselves.  This is a great time to reflect and utilize technology that can help organize yourself and your classroom for the upcoming year.   Where should you start?  Cathy and I think that this is the perfect time to share how we stay organized and to recap some of our favorite and most useful technology tools.

To maintain easy access to our documents from anywhere or any device, Cathy and I utilize Dropbox for document cloud storage.  In addition, Dropbox allows us to easily share documents with anyone.  Other cloud storage services that we recommend are Google Drive (https://teachingandlearningtoolbox.wordpress.com/2016/01/14/google-drive/), Microsoft One Drive and Apple iCloud.

In addition, a great note taking app is a must have for increasing productivity.  Both Notability (https://teachingandlearningtoolbox.wordpress.com/2016/07/31/notability/) and Evernote (https://teachingandlearningtoolbox.wordpress.com/2016/03/30/evernote/) are tools that we utilize on a weekly basis.  Additional note taking tools that we recommend are GoodNotes, Notes Plus, Noteshelf and Apple Notes.

Furthermore, Cathy and I utilize technology to convert our typical classroom into an interactive whiteboard environment.  Doceri (https://teachingandlearningtoolbox.wordpress.com/2015/09/18/doceri/) allows our hand held devices to project images through the classroom overhead projector and to record our lectures.  Additional whiteboard and/or lecture capture technology that we recommend are Explain Everything, Educreations, ShowMe, Notability, Splashtop, Scoodle Jam, Camtasia, Tegrity ,Snagit https://teachingandlearningtoolbox.wordpress.com/2017/08/31/snagit/ and Microsoft Whiteboard https://teachingandlearningtoolbox.wordpress.com/2018/10/.

To increase student engagement in the classroom environment, Cathy and I utilize several polling and gamification technologies.  Poll Everywhere https://teachingandlearningtoolbox.wordpress.com/2018/09/30/poll-everywhere-update-poll-everywhere-competitions-now-available/, Kahoot https://teachingandlearningtoolbox.wordpress.com/?s=kahoot, Piazza https://teachingandlearningtoolbox.wordpress.com/?s=piazza, Sli.do https://teachingandlearningtoolbox.wordpress.com/2019/05/31/sli-do-a-student-engagement-and-data-analysis-tool/, and Socrative https://teachingandlearningtoolbox.wordpress.com/?s=socrative are a few of our favorite polling options.  These  student engagement technologies work great for on campus or online learning environments.

Cathy and I integrate many group team activities into our course curriculums.  Some of the technologies that we use to support the group workflow and grading are:  Google Keep https://teachingandlearningtoolbox.wordpress.com/2019/03/, Slack https://teachingandlearningtoolbox.wordpress.com/2018/01/31/slack/ and Microsoft Teams https://teachingandlearningtoolbox.wordpress.com/2018/03/31/microsoft-teams/.  Another technology option to consider for team communication is Group Me.

If you are looking for technologies to introduce data analytics into your curriculum, Tableau and PowerBI https://teachingandlearningtoolbox.wordpress.com/2019/02/ are very user friendly tools.  In addition, Cathy and I describe how we introduce data analytics into our curriculum at https://teachingandlearningtoolbox.wordpress.com/2019/07/.

Finally, Cathy and I try to utilize technology to engage our students outside of our classroom lectures.  Some effective technology tools that we use to accomplish student engagement are: Kahoot Challenge https://teachingandlearningtoolbox.wordpress.com/2017/11/30/kahoot-update-now-available-create-out-of-class-assignments-with-kahoot-challenge/, Flipgrid https://teachingandlearningtoolbox.wordpress.com/2018/02/28/flipgrid/, Google Slides https://teachingandlearningtoolbox.wordpress.com/2018/04/30/engaging-students-with-google-slides-qa/, and Recap https://teachingandlearningtoolbox.wordpress.com/2018/06/30/recap/.

We hope that you take this opportunity to discover at least one technology that can help you become more organized throughout the upcoming year.  We recommend checking with your institution to see if they currently provide any of these technologies at little or no cost to faculty.  Many technologies provide similar benefits; therefore, we identified several tools within each organizational category listed above.  We suggest utilizing tools that compliment your teaching style and that can be acquired for the least amount of resources.  Good luck and have a great academic year.

 

© 2019 Teaching and Learning Toolbox

Integrating Data Analytics In Courses Across Your Curriculum To Raise The Learning Bar!

Today’s accountants find themselves performing more and more tasks that require data analytics skills.  Accounting fields such as audit, tax, financial and managerial accounting all use big data to find patterns that impact decision making and organizational strategy.  Data analytics can help accountants and management better understand their organizations from an external and internal perspective.  Data analytics helps answer what’s happened (descriptive analysis), why it happened (diagnostic) what the future may look like (predictive) and what direction should be taken next (prescriptive).  Accountants are accustomed to looking at problems that need recommendations or solutions.  Data Analytic skills enhance the accountant’s ability to quickly determine trends or irregularities in order to more rapidly identify potential problems and find solutions.

Markus and I feel it is important for students to develop data analytic competencies early in their educational coursework as well as reinforcing or “stepping up” these competencies throughout the curriculum.  So, the question we often hear is, “How do we get started incorporating data analytics into our courses and curriculum”?

Markus and I have created a “step-up” approach to data analytics that can help.  This approach has worked well with our students.  We have found that integrating data analytics into our courses has increased synergy, engagement, collaboration, attendance, as well as student interest in the potential of data analytics.  Additionally, this approach helps us prepare graduates with the required 21st-century skills.

Since Markus and I teach at different institutions and in different parts of the country, we believe our approach to incorporating data analytics is seamless and has a pedagogical purpose that can be replicated into many accounting courses, by any instructor. The first step in this model is to introduce students to Big Data concepts and problems looking for solutions.  Next students interpret already prepared data visualization reports from Power BI and/or Tableau. This gives students the opportunity to see the results of data analytics before they work with any raw data.  After students understand the big picture of data analytics, they begin working with data visualization modeling using Power BI  (https://powerbi.microsoft.com/en-us/downloads/) and/or Tableau (https://www.tableau.com/).  Finally, students are introduced to coding exercises. The Hour of Code (https://hourofcode.com/us, and Code Academy (https://www.codecademy.com/),  both offer free coding tutorials that expose students to the world of coding.  Introducing students to coding is not intended to replace information systems courses or create proficient coders. The goal of this activity is to expose students to the basic concepts of coding in order to increase student interest and a desire to learn more about coding on their own.  Ultimately, we have found that this approach improves critical thinking skills as it pushes students into higher levels of Bloom’s Taxonomy.

Technology and education are continuously evolving.  Integrating data analytics into accounting courses across the curriculum allow faculty and students to stay current with industry and educational trends.  In addition, data analytics integration allows us to address AAA/AICPA Pathways, AACSB Accreditation Standards and AICPA Technology and Tools Competencies.

To learn more about getting started with integrating Data Analytics into your courses, visit our February 2019 blog at https://teachingandlearningtoolbox.wordpress.com/2019/02/28/integrating-data-analytics-into-your-accounting-courses/.

©2019 Teaching and Learning Toolbox.com

 

Protect Your Personal Information – Identity Guard

Identity GuardIt seems that every month we are informed of a new data breach at a retailer, bank, credit card company or insurance company.  Protecting our identity now is more important than ever.  What can we do to protect our personal information?  The first step is to protect our passwords.  The Teaching and Learning Toolbox discussed the importance of password protection in a previous Tip of the Month: https://teachingandlearningtoolbox.wordpress.com/2016/12/31/lastpass/

Next, we suggest keeping a close eye on your personal credit by enrolling into a credit monitoring and/or identity theft service.  These services offer a variety of layers to protect our personal information.  At a minimum we should be monitoring our personal credit reports.  Credit monitoring involves a regular review of credit reports for accuracy and a credit monitoring service allows us to keep an eye on our credit report and score.  We can receive early warnings of changes to our credit and respond quickly.  Credit monitoring also allows us to detect instances of identity theft.  Protecting our credit from identity theft is key to ensuring that others don’t open credit in our name and then leave us with a big problem to fix.  When we compare credit monitoring services we need to compare the fees.  Some services are free while others charge for their services.  Also, it is very important when choosing a credit monitoring service to choose one that covers all three credit bureaus, not just one.

If you’ve already been a victim of identity theft or a data breach, it’s worth it to pay for credit monitoring.  There are many services to choose from, but Cathy and I utilize Identity Guard.  According to Identity Guard, twenty years ago, our identity was our name and our social security number. Today it’s a complex web made up of hundreds of digital pieces we share on a daily basis.  For a reasonable annual fee, some of the features that we like with Identity Guard are:

  • Dark Web Monitoring
  • Risk Management Report
  • Safe Browsing Tools
  • Anti Phishing Mobile App
  • Monthly Credit Score
  • Address Monitoring
  • 3-Bureau Credit Monitoring
  • Tax Refund Alerts
  • $1 Million Identity Theft Insurance

You can get started today with a “free” trial period utilizing Identity Guard today at: https://www.identityguard.com/

 

CLASS NOTE:  This is a great topic to cover when discussing Internal Controls, Financial Literacy and Personal Finance.

NOTE: Other credit monitoring and identity theft services to consider are:  Credit Karma, Experian, ID Shield, ID Watch Dog, Identity Force, Identity Protect, Identity Works, Intelius, Life Lock, My FICO, Privacy Guard.  These companies provide a variety of services and fee structures.

© 2019 Teaching and Learning Toolbox

 

Sli.do: A Student Engagement and Data Analysis Tool!

Over the years, Markus and I have been asked which technology tools let students present questions in real time while allowing the instructor to decide what questions to answer and when to answer them.  In April 2018, we presented one possible solution, Google Slides Q&A.  While Google Slides Q&A is a great tool, it is limited to the Google Suite platform.  This may or may not work in some classroom situations or for some instructors.  Therefore, if you are still looking for a technology tool that allows students to submit real-time questions during class while giving you the option for what questions to answer and when Sli.do is a great tool!

Sli.do lets you engage students with traditional features such as live polls and surveys.  However, it also lets you use a crowdsourcing approach to obtain questions and ideas from your students.  In Sli.do, Polls refer to a single question that can be integrated into your presentation for immediate student feedback.  This technique can be helpful when introducing new concepts or connecting concepts together.  Surveys, on the other hand, let you group multiple questions together so that students can answer a series of questions at one time.  The survey approach may be useful to close a class session or as a test preparation tool.

The Questions feature in Sli.do lets students submit questions in real-time while simultaneously allowing other students to view the submitted questions and vote on the questions they find useful. Polls, surveys, and questions can be submitted anonymously, or students can identify themselves by name.  Sli.do gives all students a voice in class. Additionally, the Questions voting feature gives instructors a way to identify and prioritize key areas that need further explanation.

Ideas is a new feature in Sli.do. It allows the instructor to create a topic that students can “brainstorm” about before class, during class or after class.  Like some social media platforms, the Ideas responses can be limited by word count.  Instructors can set response limits to 160, 240 or 300 words.

Sli.do is easy to use and seamlessly integrates with PowerPoint, Keynote, Prezi, or Google Slides by using the free Switcher app. The Switcher app also lets you control the presentation from your smartphone if desired.  If you are using Slack (January 2018) with your classes, Sli.do allows your students to ask questions and engage with the Ideas feature directly through Slack.

Connecting to Sli.do with a laptop or smartphone is as easy as going to  https://www.sli.do/.  Just provide students with your event code and they can join right from the Sli.do home page.  There is nothing to download or install.

A Sli.do event can be active during class or for up to seven days.  Sli.do is perfect for staying connected with your students outside of class as well as engaging online learners.

Do you teach classes larger than 40?  Have you found some polling solutions a bit limited for your needs?  Sli.do can accommodate the larger classes.  The maximum participation cap for Sli.do is 1,000 students, even with the free version!

Wondering which version of Sli.do is for you? Sli.do’s free version allows three polls and one topic per event as well as themed templates for customization, presentation integration with Switcher, training videos, online FAQ’s and 24/5 online support.  However, there is a paid version (single educator) for $75 per year that provides several additional benefits.  For instance, (1) the ability to review and moderate questions before students see them; (2) the ability for the instructor or students to comment on questions or ideas; (3) data analytics (event or account) that can be viewed, analyzed or shared; and (4) the ability to export data to Excel or PDFs.  You may find these additional benefits are worth the investment.  If your school has available resources, there are also department and institutional education pricing plans.

To learn more about Sli.do, visit https://www.sli.do/.  The Education (EDU) Plans (free and paid) can be found at https://www.sli.do/pricing?plan=edu.

Also, the following links are short videos that can help you get started:

Sli.do Questions:  https://www.sli.do/features-questions

Sli.do Polls:  https://www.sli.do/features-polls

Sli.do Ideas:  https://www.sli.do/features-ideas

Sli.do Analytics:  https://www.sli.do/features-analytics

Sli.do Switcher:  https://www.sli.do/switcher

Sli.do Integrations: https://www.sli.do/features-integrations

Sli.do/Slack Integration:  https://www.sli.do/slack-intergration

©2019, Teaching and Learning Toolbox

 

 

 

 

Increase Student Engagement with Piazza

Piazza

Do you strive to be a better teacher?  Are you looking for an easier way to communicate with your students or respond  more quickly to their questions?  Piazza may be the tool that can help you achieve these goals.

Piazza is a social learning platform that is used by over 50,000 professors in 2,000 schools and 90 countries.  Piazza was designed as a tool for students to ask questions and receive answers.  Students have the ability to ask questions privately, to the entire class or to groups.  Many instructors require all questions to go through Piazza instead of individual emails to the instructor.  This format allows all students to benefit from the question and answer.

Piazza’s wiki style format enables collaboration in one place.  Anyone in the class can respond to questions and the instructor has the ability to ensure that the responses are correct.  Piazza allows students to ask questions anonymously, which provides our quiet students the opportunity to submit questions within a safe environment.  The questions and answers are community edited, but there are separate student and instructor edited submissions.  The wiki style format allows the user to see only the high quality question and answer instead of reading through a long thread of submissions.  The questions and responses occur in a real time environment, which allows students to submit questions through Piazza during a class lecture.  The faculty response can even occur during the class session.

Some great features of Piazza’s “free” question and answer platform are:

  • Rich, group edited question and answers
  • All questions in one workflow space
  • Free iOS and Android Piazza mobile apps
  • Integrates with every major Learning Management System
  • Highly customizable real time online polls
  • Detailed participation statistics
  • Instructors can endorse answers to keep the class on track
  • Increase student collaboration

You can view a short video Piazza demonstration at the following link:  https://youtu.be/2jLSiN8E18w

What are you waiting for?  Get started for free at https://piazza.com/

 

© 2019 Teaching and Learning Toolbox

 

Google Keep – Another Great Tool from Google!

Over the years, several of the TeachingAndLearningToolbox blogs have highlighted some great Google tools for use in the classroom or to improve productivity.  Google Keep is another wonderful tool you can add to your Google Suite toolbox.

Google Keep is a free, simple and effective productivity and collaboration tool for both students and instructors. If you want to be more organized, productive and collaborative, Google Keep captures your notes and ideas, provides a collaborative sharing resource and offers a great To Do List feature.

Google Keep is available for your computer on the web or as a download through the Android or iOS mobile store apps. Google Keep also integrates with Google Docs [January 2016, Google Drive Blog, now Google Docs], which is helpful when collaborating.  Additionally, if you download the Google Keep Chrome Extension on your computer, you can save webpages, images, quotes, URLs, text, and your notes with a single click.

Google Keep is visually appealing.  It uses a sticky note, color coding format for listing projects, notes and activities.  The sticky note feature also lets you pin your most important tasks at the top of your screen or device, so they are not overlooked.  Google Keep’s note feature allows you to include text, lists, images, and audio. Voice recordings are automatically transcribed to text, which meets ADA compliance requirements, and text notes can be easily converted to checklists.

Need to pick something up for class?  Add a location-based reminder to your To Do List activity.  This feature sends a message to your mobile device when you are in the location area, saving time and consolidating trips.

Google Keep is similar to Evernote [March 2106, Evernote Blog], although not as robust.   Google Keep allows you to collaborate and share notes with others, which makes it a great tool for students to use for group projects.  It is easy to share, simply add individuals as collaborators.  Google Keep allows group members to see changes happen in real time, which makes it easy for everyone to track completed and outstanding project tasks. Google Keep also allows notes with images to be annotated, which is another great feature.  Evernote is still probably the best option if you want to organize your notes in files and notebooks, attach external files, or utilize work chat, but for Google Suite users, Google Keep may be just the tool you and your students need.

To review some of the other great Google Suite tools we have previously shared, click on the following links:

Google Slides Q&A (April 2018) https://teachingandlearningtoolbox.wordpress.com/2018/04/30/engaging-students-with-google-slides-qa/

Google Hangouts (May 2016) https://teachingandlearningtoolbox.wordpress.com/2016/05/31/google-hangouts/

Google Forms (April 2016) https://teachingandlearningtoolbox.wordpress.com/2016/04/29/google-forms/

To learn more about getting started with Google Keep, visit https://www.google.com/keep/.

© 2019 Teaching and Learning Toolbox

Doodly: Create engaging videos as easy as 1-2-3!

Happy New Year!  Markus and I hope you find some great technology tools to add to your toolbox in 2019!

This month’s technology tip is Doodly, a unique video creator.  Most of the time, Markus and I write about free technology, but this month I wanted to share a technology tool “deal” that could put a unique, eye-catching, engaging video creator into your teaching toolbox.

Doodly is a technology tool that allows you to easily create professional looking videos from simple visual sketches.  Best of all you do not have to have any drawing ability.  If you want to create video’s that are different, grab students’ attention and help simplify explaining difficult topics, Doodly may be the technology tool for you.

Doodly allows users to create drawings on various backgrounds, including whiteboard, blackboard, greenboard and glassboard canvases.  There are numerous doodle images available in the standard software. For a slight one-time upgrade fee ($97) to the Enterprise version, you can add thousands of more images to your Doodly library.

To get started, simply select your image, then drag and drop it onto your Doodly canvas.  Perhaps you want to add your own images?  Doodly allows you to upload .jpg images, including those you draw yourself.  Whatever images you choose to add to your canvas, Doodly can draw them for you. Doodly also has a large selection of drawing hands to choose from (male, female and various ethnicities), so you can customize your video’s hand image, or you can choose the “no hand” drawing option.

Do you want to add music to your video?  Doodly provides royalty free music tracks that are easy to add.  You can also record your own custom voiceover audio directly within the video creator or upload your voiceover from another recording source.  Whichever audio option you choose, it is simple to sync and/or edit audio with your doodle sketch.  Once you have created your Doodly video, save it in an mp4 format, then upload it for sharing to YouTube or another video web hosting source.

Doodly works on both PCs and Macs. After your online purchase you will receive a confirmation email with instructions on how to get started.  Best of all, Doodly can be downloaded to as many computers as you like, making it convenient to use with multiple devices, in multiple locations.

While Doodly is simple and intuitive to use, it also has helpful support and idea options including FAQ’s, tutorial videos, a help desk and a Facebook user group.

Normally. Markus and I pass over technology tools that aren’t free or don’t offer a free trial; however, Doodly’s limited time Facebook special offer (a one-time $67 fee, no annual renewal, free updates and a 30-day money-back guarantee), was too good to pass up.  Doodly is a great technology tool to kick off the new year!

Note:  Doodly normally retails for $480 per year; therefore, if you are interested in learning more about this dynamic video creator tool and the limited time Facebook discount offer, click on the following link. https://www.doodly.com/special-one-time-price-fb.php?fbclid=IwAR2Lzq0VzryOF1Z9Xd-UEjv_XUbN64xqcGr3tmqlxty5YyuTo1KurDZsmnI

*Doodly’s regular website (www.doodly.com) does not offer this limited time savings option.

© 2019 TeachingAndLearningToolbox.com

 

2018 Year End Review

Toolbox

As our semester and 2018 come to a close, we feel that it is a great opportunity to reflect upon the fantastic technology tools and topics that we explored throughout the year.  A great resolution for 2019 is to integrate one of these tools into your classroom environment.

Slackhttps://teachingandlearningtoolbox.wordpress.com/2018/01/

Flipgridhttps://teachingandlearningtoolbox.wordpress.com/2018/02/

Microsoft Teamshttps://teachingandlearningtoolbox.wordpress.com/2018/03/

Google Slides Q&Ahttps://teachingandlearningtoolbox.wordpress.com/2018/04/

Office Lenshttps://teachingandlearningtoolbox.wordpress.com/2018/05/

Recap https://teachingandlearningtoolbox.wordpress.com/2018/06/30/recap/

Let’s Get Ready for the New Academic Yearhttps://teachingandlearningtoolbox.wordpress.com/2018/07/31/lets-get-ready-for-the-new-academic-year/

Peergrade https://teachingandlearningtoolbox.wordpress.com/2018/08/31/peer-evaluations-made-easy/

Poll Everywhere Competitionshttps://teachingandlearningtoolbox.wordpress.com/2018/09/30/poll-everywhere-update-poll-everywhere-competitions-now-available/

Microsoft Whiteboardhttps://teachingandlearningtoolbox.wordpress.com/2018/10/31/microsoft-whiteboard/

Todoisthttps://teachingandlearningtoolbox.wordpress.com/2018/11/30/todoist/

We look forward to exploring more teaching and learning technology tools in 2019.

© 2018 Teaching and Learning Toolbox

Microsoft Whiteboard

Microsoft Whiteboard:  A Collaborative Learning Experience

Are you looking for ways to make your classroom or synchronous online lectures and activities more engaging?  Try Microsoft Whiteboard!  Microsoft Whiteboard is a new virtual, collaborative whiteboard app that can help increase student engagement and participation.  Microsoft Whiteboard is a free app that works with both Windows and iOS.  It allows users to collaborate in real time, using a virtual canvas.  Similar to the traditional classroom whiteboard, instructors project information for students to view; however, the Microsoft Whiteboard app also allows students to interact with the board from their mobile device or computer in real-time.   Also, unlike the traditional classroom whiteboard, instructors don’t need to erase information anymore.  Microsoft Whiteboard saves board annotations automatically to the cloud.  This means students don’t have to write everything down or take pictures of the board.  They can simply retrieve the information on their device during or after class as needed.

Microsoft Whiteboards can be annotated with a pen, keyboard or by touch.  Tools include sticky notes which can be annotated and stacked, and drawing tools such as a ruler and ink to shape feature.  Ink to shape takes your freehand drawings and immediately gives them a professional look.   You can also easily insert pictures or ink to table charts.  Microsoft Whiteboard also makes it easy to resize or copy content within or from your board as well as switch between boards.  Finally, Microsoft Whiteboard’s bird’s eye view option, allows you to zoom out or zoom in on displayed content as needed.  This can be particularly helpful when working with numbers, such as financial statements.

The collaborative nature of Microsoft Whiteboard makes it a useful technology tool for classroom brainstorming activities, mind-mapping, group work-out problems or integrating collaborative approaches to problem-solving and decision-making activities.  Best of all, Microsoft Whiteboard is easy to use.  Just download the appropriate app (Windows or iOS), then set up or sign in with a Microsoft account (Outlook, Hotmail, Live, Xbox, Office 365).  To start a collaborative, interactive session, simply select the “Invite” button, then write or type the invitee’s name or generate a link to share with the class.

To learn more about Microsoft Whiteboard, watch the overview video at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hG91PYYPDto.  Then visit https://products.office.com/en-us/microsoft-whiteboard/digital-whiteboard-app to get started with your free account.

© 2018 Teaching and Learning Toolbox

Poll Everywhere Update: Poll Everywhere Competitions Now Available

Poll Everywhere Competitions-1

As we have previously written (August 2015), Poll Everywhere provides “free” polling to educators, which allows you to poll up to 40 students at one time.  It only takes a few minutes to set up a poll and students can respond to your poll in numerous ways, including by texting from their cell phones.  But now you have the capability to create Student Competitions within Poll Everywhere.  When you create multiple choice questions in Poll Everywhere, you now have the option for the students to play for points.  You determine the number of questions to include in the Competition and the students respond from their devices.  Points are earned for correct answers and for how quickly they submit their answer.  The leaderboard is updated after each question, which creates competitiveness and excitement in the classroom.  You can have students compete individually or in teams.  Typically, Cathy and I prefer utilizing a team environment within the classroom, which avoids having students being left out if they do not have a device with them to submit their answer.

This is a great way to introduce gamification into your curriculum.  Cathy and I use Poll Everywhere for first day of class activities, in-class exam reviews, homework responses and ethic case responses (to name a few).  Poll Everywhere has increased student engagement and classroom attendance within our courses.

For more information on how to use this “free” resource, go to the link below and watch the “Introducing Poll Everywhere Competitions” video for a quick demonstration:  https://www.polleverywhere.com/competitions

© 2018 Teaching and Learning Toolbox